74-409 SERVER VIRTUALIZATION WITH WINDOWS SERVER AND SYSTEM CENTER EPUB
Register for exam and view official preparation materials to get hands-on Server Virtualization with Windows Server Hyper-V and System Center or promotions, please contact your Regional Service Center. This study guide for Microsoft's Server Virtualization with Windows Server Hyper-V and System Center exam will take you through each. Free exam in VCE & PDF format also you can read online. Exam Server Virtualization with Windows Server Hyper-V and System Center.
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Hyper-V Server and Windows Server R2 with Hyper-V provide best in class . Microsoft Hyper-V Und System Center: Das Handbuch Für Administratoren. pdf Windows Server Hyper-V Installation and Configuration Guide. epub . Server Virtualization with Windows Server Hyper-V and System Center. Did you know that Packt offers eBook versions of every book published, with PDF and ePub files available? Upgrading legacy Hyper-V servers to Windows Server 51 . Chapter 7: Managing Hyper-V with System Center Virtual .. we configure the identical type of virtualization servers (a cluster), and this shared . Are you looking for Virtualization Study Guide? Then you certainly come exam Server. Virtualization with Windows Server Hyper-V and System Center.
An abbrevi- ated constant name applies to each of the rights described in Table The constant names are used for logging and can also be used for Windows PowerShell, as discussed later in this section.
Act as part of the Applies to processes to determine SeTcbPrivilege operating system whether they can use a users identity to gain access to the privileges granted to that user. Objective 1. Adjust memory quotas Enables a user to change the memory SeIncreaseQuotaPrivilege for a process used by a process. Services Back up files and Enables an account to bypass SeBackupPrivilege directories permissions for backup purposes.
Change the system time Enables a user to change the time on SeSystemtimePrivilege the local computer. Change the time zone Enables a user to change the time SeTimeZonePrivilege zone on the local computer. Create a pagefile Enables a user to change settings SeCreatePagefilePrivilege around the pagefile, including its size. Create a token object Enables a process to create a token SeCreateTokenPrivilege using the privileged account. Create global objects Enables creation of global objects.
Debug programs Enables a user to attach to a process SeDebugPrivilege for debugging. Generate security audits Enables an account to generate audit SeAuditPrivilege records in the security log. Specifically, if the server is running Windows Server , then the VM Connect is installed with the Hyper-V role provided that either the server with a GUI installation option has been selected or the Minimal Server Interface option has been configured. The purpose of VM Connect is to enable Hyper-V administrators to directly interact with the guest operating system in a virtual machine from the local console of the host.
While management of most virtual machines is typically performed remotely using either Remote Desktop Connection RDC or Windows PowerShell, there are times when you might need to work with a virtual machine directly on the host, for example when the virtual network adapter of a virtual machine stops functioning. In such cases, you can use Hyper-V Manager on the host and to connect to the virtual machine and open its desktop within the VM Connect window to configure or troubleshoot the virtual machine and its guest operating system even if the virtual machine has no connectivity with your network.
The way that VM Connect works in Windows Server and earlier is to present you with a bitmap image of the desktop of a virtual machine s guest operating system, which is generated by an emulated video card in the virtual machine. This bitmap image is updated in real time so you can see configuration changes as they happen. VM Connect also provides you with emulated keyboard and mouse devices in the virtual machine so you can directly control the desktop of the guest operating system.
Because VM Connect in Windows Server and earlier uses bitmap images, certain limitations exist in how you can use VM Connect to interact with the guest operating system. Beginning with Windows Server R2, however, VM Connect no longer connects you to the guest operating system using an emulated video card, keyboard, and mouse in the virtual machine. Redirect audio on the virtual machine to the host.
Enable the guest operating system to use smart cards attached to the host. Enable the guest operating system to access any USB device attached to the host.
All of this is possible even if the virtual machine is not connected to the network. You don t have to be logged on interactively to the host to experience all this new VM Connect functionality. Cross-version live migration Windows Server R2 also includes several significant improvements to live migration that can benefit organizations deploying private cloud solutions built with Windows Server and System Center. Live migration was introduced in Windows Server R2 to provide a high-availability solution for virtual machines running on Hyper-V hosts.
Live migration uses the Failover Clustering feature to allow running virtual machines to be moved between cluster nodes without perceived downtime or loss of network connection. Live migration provides the benefit of increased agility by allowing you to move running virtual machines to the best host for improving performance, achieving better scaling, or ensuring optimal workload consolidation.
Live migration also helps increase productivity and reduce cost by allowing you to service your host machines without interruption or downtime for your virtualized workloads. Cross-version live 12 Introducing Windows Server R2 Preview Release 21 migration can be performed using any of the live migration options supported by Windows Server including: Live migration on a failover cluster Live migration between failover clusters Live migration using a Scale-Out File Server that supports SMB 3.
If you can tolerate a brief downtime window for your workloads, you can even choose to perform an in-place upgrade of your existing Hyper-V hosts from Windows Server to Windows Server R2. And unlike previous versions of Windows Server, you don t have to perform a lot of preparatory actions before performing an in-place upgrade of your Hyper-V hosts.
For example, you previously had to do things like turn off the virtual machines running on the host, and you also had to delete any snapshots and saved states of the virtual machines.
When performing an in-place upgrade of a Hyper-V host from Windows Server to Windows Server R2, however, none of these preparatory steps are required and all of the virtual machine s snapshots and saved states are preserved.
First, a new ability to compress live migration traffic can be used to reduce the amount of data that needs to be sent over the network during a live migration.
This live migration compression capability is enabled by default for Hyper-V in Windows Server R2 and can often halve the time it takes to perform a live migration in a Windows Server R2 Hyper-V environment, depending on the processing resources available on the host machines for performing the compression operation.
RDMA is a networking technology that enables high-throughput, low-latency communication that minimizes CPU usage on the computers using this technology. RDMA is an industry standard protocol defined in RFC that works by moving data directly between the memory of the computers involved, bypassing the operating systems on these machines.
SMB Multichannel thus enables server applications to take full advantage of all available network bandwidth and be resilient to a network failure. This not only results in significantly faster live migrations but also results in less use of processing resources on the hosts as well. This is different from live migration compression, which utilizes available processor resources on the host to reduce the network load involved in transferring the compressed virtual machine memory across the network.
When would you use live migration compression?
A typical scenario would be when the primary constraining factor limiting the speed of live migration is your network bandwidth but your Hyper-V hosts are not under heavy load as regards processing cycles. A scenario here would be when the primary constraining factor is high processor utilization on your host machines while you have lots of bandwidth available on your network.
In general, if the network you are using for performing your live migration is 10 GbE or slower, you probably want to use the compression approach. This means that if the workload running on a virtual machine should require more space, you can expand the virtual hard disk without interrupting any applications accessing the workload. And if you want to reallocate storage space from one virtual machine to another, you can shrink the virtual hard disk attached to the first virtual machine provided that there is sufficient unpartitioned space on the disk to free up space for expanding the disk on the second machine.
Online resizing of virtual hard disks requires that these disks be using the newer VHDX virtual hard disk format first introduced in Windows Server VHDX was designed to address the growing technological demands of today s enterprises and provides greater storage capacity, built-in data protection, and support for large-sector hard disk drives.
In addition, online resizing requires that the virtual disk be attached to the virtual machine s SCSI bus. For example, the following steps use Hyper-V Manager to expand the size of a running virtual machine: 1.
Exam Server Virtualization with Windows Server Hyper-V and System Center
In Hyper-V Manager, right-click the virtual machine and select Settings. Select the Expand option on the Choose Action page, click Next, type the new size you want the virtual hard disk to have see Figure , and then click Next followed by Finish. Once you ve expanded a virtual hard disk, the option to shrink it will be displayed next time you use the Edit Virtual Hard Disk Wizard.
Live export Not only can you now resize virtual hard disks attached to virtual machines while the virtual machines are running, you can also export a running virtual machine.
You couldn t do this with virtual machines on Windows Server or earlier versions of Windows Server. However, with Windows Server R2 you can use Hyper-V Manager to export a complete copy of a running virtual machine or to export any snapshot of a running virtual machine.
And you can use Virtual Machine Manager R2 to clone a running virtual machine, which basically involves exporting and then importing a virtual machine to create a new virtual machine that is based on the existing virtual machine.
And you can even export snapshots while a virtual machine is running. One scenario where live export can be helpful is when a running virtual machine in your environment begins to exhibit some instability but is still performing its expected workload. Previously, you had to choose between the lesser of two evils: Stop the virtual machine or take it offline and try to troubleshoot the problem.
Unfortunately while the virtual machine is stopped or offline, its workload will no longer be available to users, and this can result in loss of either business or productivity.
This approach allows the virtual machine s workload to continue to be available, but instability often ends up with the application or guest operating system crashing, which means a probable interruption in workload will occur. Once again, this is likely to result in loss of either business or productivity.
With live export, however, you can now clone a copy of your unstable virtual machine without shutting the virtual machine down see Figure You can then let your production virtual machine continue to run while you perform troubleshooting steps on the cloned workload to try and see if you can resolve the issue causing the instability. Once you determine how to fix the problem by working with the cloned virtual machine, you might be able to repair your production virtual machine without needing to reboot the guest operating system or restart its running applications, depending on the issue causing the instability.
Linux guest support in Hyper-V is especially desired by hosting providers who often like to provide their customers with a wide range of platform options for running their web applications and services. Because of the needs of these customer segments, Microsoft envisions Hyper-V virtualization as cross-platform from the metal up and supports a wide range of Linux distros, as shown in Table , by providing Linux Integration Services LIS for specific versions of popular distros.
Dynamic Memory Dynamic Memory is now fully supported for Linux virtual machines, including both hot-add and remove functionality. This means you can now run Windows and Linux virtual machines side-by-side on the same host machine while using Dynamic Memory to ensure fair allocation of memory resources to each virtual machine on the host.
Online VHDX resize Virtual hard disks attached to Linux virtual machines can be resized while the virtual machine is running. Hyper-V Replica enhancements In the short time that Windows Server has been released, Hyper-V Replica has proven to be one of its most popular features.
Hyper-V Replica provides asynchronous replication of virtual machines between two Hyper-V hosts. It s easy to configure and doesn t need either shared storage or any particular storage hardware. Any server workload that you can virtualize on Hyper-V can be replicated using this capability, and replication is encrypted during transmission and works over any IP-based network.
You can use Hyper-V Replica with standalone Hyper-V hosts, failover clusters of hosts, or a mixture of these environments. The host machines can either be physically colocated or widely separated geographically. And they don t need to be in the same domain or even domain-joined at all. Hyper-V Replica is an ideal technology for organizations that want to add support for disaster recovery to their Hyper-V environment to ensure business continuity.
For example, you could use it to provide disaster recovery support for the branch offices by replicating their virtual machines to hosts at the head office. Another possible scenario would be to have a hosting provider set up a Replica server at their data center to receive replication data from a number of Hyper-V hosts running virtualized workloads on the premises of customers.
In Hyper-V Replica in Windows Server R2, greater control over the frequency at which data is replicated between hosts is a new feature. In Windows Server , the replication frequency was fixed at every five minutes.
Some customers provided feedback that this was not frequent enough for their environment, while others requested the option of performing replication less frequently. So now, as Figure shows, there are two new replication frequencies you can choose from besides the default one of five minutes when you enable replication for a server: 30 seconds Choosing this option means that the host in the replica site will never be more than a minute behind the host in the primary site.
This option was provided in Windows Server R2 so that Hyper-V Replica could be used as an alternative to more expensive SAN solutions that have a similar low latency. Organizations that simply need to replicate data as quickly as possible, for example between two data centers in the same metropolitan area, might choose this option. CHAPTER 2 Hyper-V 19 28 15 minutes This option was provided especially for organizations that wanted to replicate data over networks that had very high latency or low reliability, for example over a satellite link.
To ensure that replication would tolerate network outages and succeed in such scenarios, a long replication window like this can now be chosen when you enable replication on a host in Windows Server R2, and choosing this option means that the host in the replica site will never be more than an hour behind the host in the primary site.
As Figure shows, you configure extended replication when you enable replication on a host. One possible use for this new feature would be enterprises that want to do replication both on-premises and to a local hoster.
With extended replication, enterprises can do a first-hop replication on-premises and then a second hop offsite, like this: On-premises host A On-premises host B Hosting provider Another usage scenario might be for hosting providers that provide Hyper-V Replica services to their customers and also want to replicate customer virtual machines to the hoster s backup data center.
Extended replication in this scenario would thus be: Customer site Primary data center Secondary data center These enhancements to Hyper-V Replica in Windows Server R2 don t just represent new features added to the platform in response to customer requests; they also represent the next steps in Microsoft s vision of offering cloud-scale disaster recoverability solutions based on the Windows Server platform, System Center, and Windows Azure.
For example, by using Hyper-V Recovery Manager together with VMM R2, you can replicate your organization s primary data center to your disaster recovery site as shown in Figure Using Hyper-V Recovery Manager, you can enhance your organization s disaster recovery preparedness by performing failovers of selected virtual machine workloads in your environment to replicate them to your backup site.
And the best thing about it is that you can do this at a fraction of the cost of using traditional SAN replication. There s more! We ll talk about that in Chapter 3, Storage, since it fits well into the theme of that chapter.
This new capability is going to be a game changer, especially for hosters who want to maintain separation between their own storage infrastructure and that of their tenants. Since this is related to the topic of clustering, we ll defer discussion of this one until we get to Chapter 4, Failover Clustering later in this book.
There are still other enhancements to Hyper-V in Windows Server R2, but since this is only a First Look book we ll leave these until we get more chances to play with the product so we can revise and expand this book when Windows Server R2 is released to manufacturing and becomes generally available to customers. For many organizations, storage is also a major cost center that consumes a large portion of the budget of the IT department.
Maximizing the performance and efficiency of storage while helping to reduce costs was a major goal of Windows Server , and the numerous new features and capabilities introduced in that platform now provide enterprises with new ways of squeezing the most out of shrinking IT budgets when it comes to storage.
Introducing Windows Server R2
Windows Server R2 takes these previous enhancements a step further and enables organizations to reenvision how storage infrastructure can be built and managed. This chapter examines the new storage features in Windows Server R2, focusing mainly on improvements to file- and block-based storage in the platform.
The next chapter will build on this one by examining how failover clustering has been enhanced in Windows Server R2 and how Hyper-V virtualization can benefit from the improvements to storage and failover clustering. But first we ll briefly review some of the storage enhancements that were previously introduced in Windows Server Previous enhancements to storage A number of new storage capabilities were introduced in the previous version of Windows Server, and space doesn t allow us to describe each of them in detail.
But as a quick summary, the following might be characterized as some of the more significant storage improvements in the platform: Storage Spaces Storage Spaces provided storage virtualization capabilities that allow you to group industry-standard disks such as Serial ATA or Serial Attached SCSI disks into storage pools. You could then create virtual disks called storage spaces or spaces from the available capacity in the pools and provision resilient storage volumes as they were needed.
This allowed you to make more efficient use of disk capacity, provision storage quickly and easily without impacting users, delegate the administration of storage, and provide cost-effective storage for business-critical applications that make use of low-cost, commodity-based just-a-bunch-of-disks JBODs.
SMB 3. ReFS supported volume sizes up to 18 exabytes in size and could be especially useful on file servers storing large amounts of data or running disk-intensive applications that require high levels of performance.
Data deduplication Data deduplication allowed more data to be stored in less space without compromising the integrity or fidelity of the data stored on the volume.
It accomplished this by segmenting files into small, variable-sized chunks, identifying any duplicate chunks present, and maintaining only a single copy of each unique chunk of data.
When combined with other availability technologies in Windows Server , iscsi Target Server provided continuously available storage that previously required organizations to download expensive, high-end SAN arrays.
The result was to minimize latency, maximize array throughput, and reduce resource usage such as CPU and network consumption on the host computer. Chkdsk Windows Server introduced a new Chkdsk model that allowed organizations to confidently deploy large, multiterabyte NTFS file system volumes without worrying about their availability being compromised should file system corruption be detected on them. The new version of Chkdsk ran automatically in the background and actively monitored the health state of the file system volume.
Should file system corruption be detected, NTFS now instantaneously self-healed most issues online without requiring Chkdsk to run offline. This means that the amount of time needed for running Chkdsk on multiterabyte data volumes can be reduced from hours to only a few seconds, plus in many scenarios you won t even need to take the disk offline and run Chkdsk on it at all. Storage management improvements Beginning with Windows Server , you could now use the File and Storage Services role in Server Manager to remotely manage multiple file servers running Windows Server , including their storage pools, volumes, shares, and iscsi virtual disks, all from a single user interface.
You could also use the new Windows PowerShell cmdlets in Windows Server to automate the same storage management tasks. Microsoft s vision for storage As you can see from the previous section, Windows Server introduced a lot of new storage features and capabilities to the Windows Server platform.
Together with System Center SP1, Windows Server provided organizations with a cost-effective solution for building and deploying private clouds using file-based storage access comprised of low-cost commodity storage accessed over a standard Ethernet network. While the R2 release of Windows Server adds a number of incremental improvements to both file- and block-based storage and to how storage is managed on the Windows Server platform, it also represents something more.
Microsoft s vision and goals with respect to storage for this new release are threefold: To greatly reduce the capital and operational storage and available costs for organizations deploying Infrastructure-as-a-Service IaaS services for private clouds, hosted clouds, and cloud service providers. To disaggregate compute and storage resources so they can be independently managed and scaled at each layer of cloud infrastructure. To allow enterprises to build software-defined storage solutions using inexpensive, industry-standard servers, networks, and shared JBOD storage.
With this focus in mind, the incremental improvements to storage capabilities in Windows Server R2 are designed to specifically target the above three goals. Building the solution using Windows Server R2 To understand how Windows Server R2 can be used to implement the above vision for cloud computing, let s look at an example.
Figure shows the compute, networking, and storage components of a simple private cloud solution built using the Windows Server platform. You can think of this solution as having four layers as follows: Compute layer At the top are several Hyper-V hosts joined together in a failover cluster.
These hosts use commodity server hardware to provide cost-efficient scale-out capabilities. For example, if the solution needs more processing power to run more workloads running in virtual machines, you can add another commodity server to the Hyper-V cluster.
Utilizing the scale-out approach like this is often a more cost-effective solution for organizations than using a scale-up solution that involves only two expensive high-end host machines, where you need to add another processor to each host if you want to run more workloads.Enable the guest operating system to use smart cards attached to the host.
The new version of Chkdsk ran automatically in the background and actively monitored the health state of the file system volume. And unlike previous versions of Windows Server, you don t have to perform a lot of preparatory actions before performing an in-place upgrade of your Hyper-V hosts. Legacy free In previous versions of Hyper-V, virtual machines used a standard set of emulated hardware devices to ensure compatibility running all versions of Windows. RDMA is an industry standard protocol defined in RFC that works by moving data directly between the memory of the computers involved, bypassing the operating systems on these machines.
Here you can also select applications to backup. Upgrade to vCenter Single Sign-On 5.