A THOUSAND YEARS OF NONLINEAR HISTORY PDF
File:DeLanda Manuel A Thousand Years of Nonlinear rainbowgiraffe.info rainbowgiraffe.info (file. File:DeLanda Manuel A Thousand Years of Nonlinear History no rainbowgiraffe.info Redirect page. Jump to: navigation, search. #REDIRECT File:DeLanda Manuel A . The title of this book is an outline of De Landa s agenda. He wants to convey his philosophical approach to history using examples chosen from the last 1, years of human history. Within each section De Landa illustrates his approach with examples from the (approximately) last.
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A Thousand Years of Non-Linear History – Part II: Flesh and Genes [email protected] rainbowgiraffe.info / rainbowgiraffe.info(Chap2).pdf. Manuel de Landa - A Thousand Years of Nonlinear History - Free download as PDF File .pdf) or view presentation slides online. DeLanda_A Thousand Years of Nonlinear History - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online.
I believe the underlying points of the book are progress is a misguided notion reality and consciousness and everything around us are just states of energy and biomass hardened by history our own history biases how we evaluate history many things are not linear even if we have traditionally been lead to think of them in that way Where applicable the book may also appear biased toward heterogeneous over homogenous systems due largely to the great blinding support of homogenous systems in the business community homogenized systems are easier to extract profit from due to the lowered costs of mass production.
This quote really states how he looks at the true cost of homogenization and discipline: As with all disciplinary institutions, a true accounting must include those forces that increase in economic terms of utility and those that decrease in political terms of obedience.
I think one of the biggest things I got out of the book was a fresh reminder from a different perspective that some of the scummiest aspects of capitalism are not intentional, but are just un cared for side effects of other business processes.
I was talking to a reporter about some tech companies recently when I stated that I thought that certain companies would do this or that and why. He asked if I got that from talking to those companies.
A Thousand Years of Nonlinear History
I said no, that my knowledge was from thinking about economic theory and business theory stuff. Many of those ideas came from reading this book. Almost any book you read is going to be in some ways biased, but I would say this book was biased toward reality without so much propaganda or hidden agenda ie: I think this book was written out of passion and interest more than to mislead me into trying to download into something.
This is really the most mind opening book I have ever read. As a marketer participating in a somewhat new network it is amazingly fascinating reading about how economics, biology, and linguistics have evolved over the last 1, years.
Below is a point by point Aaron Notes type review of the various sections of the book. I initially took the notes for myself, but thought it would be worth posting them anyhow. From the introduction reality and consciousness are just a state of energy evolution or other 'improvement' to the state of living does not mean things are inherently better Adam Smith's invisible hand theory is a bit too idealistic for real world application.
The market friction which it ignores is largely what drives many business models and large socioeconomic changes. Virtually any manufactured profit is created in cascading sets of quality with people further from the source valuing things of lower quality and emulating the original to raise the quality of their products and local skill level.
As new keyword develop they quickly are able to monetize them. As old markets die off due to political, cultural, economic or other forces they are not tied to them. Even at a young age we are generally taught to develop our thinking patterns in terms of concrete causes and effects. He objected to giving me his address when I offered to send him a 'Hitler was right' t-shirt. Those who still believe in ethnic cleansing after Hitler probably do not deserve to be alive and should cleanse themselves from the populous.
There are also non-traditional ways to control human reproductive cycles. Some wars intentionally underequipped types of soldiers to allow them to be cleansed from the gene pool. To this day the military recruiters pray on the young, poor, and those of below average intelligence.
While that may sound ultra biased my thesis for that statement are based on my own experiences. I grew up in a poor town and joined the military when I was While I am quite economically successful I have not yet decided where I wanted to move to, and still live in a mobile home I moved into it with a friend a few years ago to cut my living costs back when I was just learning about the web and only making a couple hundred dollars a month.
Earlier this month yet another military recruiter knocked on my door again. While being of about an average intelligence level I literally scored off the charts high on most of the military tests I took when I was 17 even the nuclear power test which should have been a strong indication that the test scales were scaled toward people who are of below average intelligence. Early obstetricians and gynecologists screwed up much worse than midwives by making it easier to spread disease and also by excessively using forceps at birth.
Private enterprise also took other choices from mothers by sneaking in berthing formula while the mother did not know it was being given to the baby. To this day tryptophan is common in birthing formulas but is illegal to download as a supplement. Few people questioned how shady that was large public outrage is often required to get special interests to yield authority. It was before Hamburg improved sanitation of its water supply.
They only did so after a cholera epidemic hit. In many cases consumers are not even informed of which food products are contaminated with the garbage. Do you really want trust the people who manufacture agent orange when they talk about the effects of chemicals they inject into the food supply?
Fox News fired multiple reporters for wanting to air a report about how shady rBGH is. The Meatrix also provides a clip on rBGH. The nutritional value of a crop is largely ignored in favor of the other "more important" read as more profitable genetic traits.
Improving some of those other genetic traits also comes at the direct cost of lowered nutritional value. As nutrition is removed from the food supply drug companies hook people on garbage prescriptions that treat symptoms of an unbalanced lifestyle with poor nutritional input.
Of course it will not be the fault of drug companies when things go astray. A person that will go out and steal to obtain their drug of choice or cause harm to another At the same time children are medicated with these pills that IMHO wrongfully replace or cover up natural human emotions.
Some of these things are blatantly over prescribed by doctors who learned from text books and journals sponsored or funded by self interested drug companies. But they were both in the same drug family. And the same drug family as the drugs associated with a kid in the Columbine shooting. That drug family was born with the original drug being announced as a wonder drug of the future. Around the time of the release of that drug family a natural supplement that about 15 million people were taking which worked on the same neurotransmitter was banned from the United States On March 22, , the FDA banned the public sale dietary of L-Tryptophan completely.
This ban continues today. On March 26, , Newsweek featured a lead article praising the virtues of the anti-depressant drug Prozac. The action of Prozac and L-Tryptophan are both involved with serotonin, but in totally different ways. L-Tryptophan, the allegedly harmful supplement, is still added to baby formula in the United States to this very day. H aving re l atives a b ro a d. Add itio n a l ly. B etwee n and T hey. Eu rope h a d patiently to reconstruct America i n her o w n i mage before it bega n to correspo n d t o her o w n w i s h e s.
If the d i scovery of America bro ught Eu rope l ittle retu rn in the s ho rt ru n. I n fact Eu rope took ce ntu ries to b u i l d a wo rld i n her own i mage across the Atla ntic. Eu rope i n deed seemed i n s ign ificant and i m potent faced with the s u perh u man tas k a head and as yet o n ly i m perfectly perceived.
Such a labor of reco n struction was not of cou rse accomp l ished overn ight: Sl ave ry. Access to overseas s u p p l ies. Sugar a lso ge n er ated i nten se p rofits. T h ere. I n A po rt. The n aval h ospita l m u st therefo re treat.
N evert h e less. To t h is exte nt. T h e form a l pol icies had s p read widely in the south. They sometimes circ u l ated very rapid ly from o ne point to a n other between the They were at wo rk i n seco ndary e d u cation at a very early d ate. The style of a rmy o rga n izati o n that ca me i nto bei ng in H o l l and at the close of the sixteenth ce ntury.
D u ri n g the eighteenth centu ry, the contagio n attai ned a fa r greater range: Official centralized reco rds of ped igrees we re i ntrod uced with the fo u nd i ng of the G e n e ral Stu d Book in and Coates' H erd Book i n The most serious l i m itation has been the grad u a l b u ild-up of a ped igree mystiq u e , i.
This has led m a ny breed e rs t o con ce ntrate o n the re p rod uctio n of a ste reotype - the extreme of which ca n be seen i n a n u mbe r of modern d og breeds where the condition has ofte n re su lted i n the i nc i d e n ce at h ig h freq u e ncy of u nd e s i ra ble ge nes. Although hybrid corn was first i n trod uc ed to far m e rs i n , only a bout one p e rcent of the acreage i n the Corn Belt was p l a n ted to hybrid va rieties by Yie l d s i n c rea sed d ramatical ly; "corn powe r" had a rrived.
I n some cases it wou l d wipe out an enti re sta nd of corn in ten days. The new fu ngus moved l i k e wi l d f i re through one co rn field after another.
T h e fu n gus moved swiftly t h rough Georgia. Researchers at or affi l i ated with these l a b o rato rie s gat h e red i n formati on bearing on h u m an hered ity by exa m i n i n g medical reco rds or co n d u cting exte nded fa m i ly stu d ies.
Newa rk's mate rnal morta l ity rate of 1. B y t h e s t h e p ropo rtion o f women breast-feed i ng. As the pe rce ntage of b i rths atte nded by midwives d e c reased from 50 to 15 percent. Without su fficient suckl i n g the mothe r's m i l k d ried u p. I n the n u rseries. Conseq ue ntly. I n c reased p hysician atte n d a nce at b i rth did not re sult i n i m p roved outcome fo r mothers a n d ba bie s. Spreaq [of the new pol i cies] to ot h e r co u n tri es occurred re latively rapid ly.
M o re speci fica l ly. The p l ague baci l l u s has spread ste ad ily eastwards fro m the west coast and in 1 was fo u n d among a n i mals in the mid-west. Plague was brought by s h i p to the n o rthwest of Ame rica aro u n d 1 W h e n t h e term a ntibiotic was i ntrod uced i n To beg i n with. T h e p roblem was t hat. The city beca m e. Tod a y. Soon afte r Wo rld Wa r I I.
P a radoxical ly. Wo rse yet. As we saw a bove. I n oth e r words. After this. In some cases. C rops in the fiel d m u st fi rst meet the tests of yie l d. And gen es are the keys to meeting each of these ste ps in the food-making process. A few centu ries ago. In this process the genes t h at matter are those of yield. G e n es t h at caused vegetables t o yie l d u n iform s hapes a n d sizes. G e n etic tests. We h ave noted repeate d ly t hat. H ow- L inguistic History: The n. P rovenr.
Dialect co nti n u a a re normally " h o rizontal" i 6-d i lTi e n s i o n. Co m pl ete separatio n. Fra nco. In terms of prestige. The r u ra l m asses were left free to rei nvent t h e i r l a ngu ages a n d to fo rge local i d e ntities. I n t h e centuries a fter the refo r m s.
But someone. T h e trad ition o f rea d i ng Lati n aloud as a n a rtificial l a n guage. Before the year Lice n ses. Pa ris a n d core gateways Ven ice. Soci ol ing u i sts answer t hat.
N eed less to say. I n tech n i cal terms. The o n ly way to prese rve o n e 's pos ition in a netwo rk. The stu dy of co ntact betwe en la ngu ages is i m po rta nt in h isto rical l i ngu istics beca u s e it bri ngs to l ight the d iffe rent fo rms of hori zo n ta l flow betwee n d ia l ects. Pa rad oxica l ly. As La bov notes. Sca n d i n avi a n words such as "th ey.
Some Lati n te rms flowed i nto Engla nd fro m conti n e ntal E u rope as pa rt of the m i l ita ry. I n most cases. As we saw befo re. U n der s u ch co n d itions of lai ssez fai re. Old Engl i s h had evolved t h rough seve ra l types of contact: West Saxo n was no lo nger the l ite rary sta ndard of the co nquered B rito n s.
As the tongue of a s u bj ugated cou ntry O l d Engl ish lost prestige. Ne ither c h u rch nor state had much time to give to the language of the Engl i s h peasa nts.
If so. At a ny event. Sabir is ra re a m o ng p idgi n s beca u se of its l o n gevity it d ied o n ly i n the early twe ntieth centu ry.
Tod ay. Without t h ese resou rces. And there may i ndeed be more than two stages. At least two t h i ngs p reve nt us. Afr i kaans attai ned hom ogeneity when it was a l ocally m i no r la ngu age struggl i ng aga i nst [modern] Engl ish. Wit h i n a s i ngle regio n there may coexi st.
B ut the o ppos ite argu ment seems more com pe l l i ng: Or the way Black Engl i s h a n d any n u m ber o f "ghetto l a ngu ages" set Ame rica n Engl ish in variatio n. Ta ke the way Gaelic a n d I rish Engl ish set Engl i s h i n variation. I taly and G e r m a ny wou ld re m a i n fragme nted for centuries beca use of t h e o p position to central. T h i s struggle. To ledo's n ew Casti l i a n-spea k i n g el ite s. The u ses fo r writ i n g greatly d ivers i fi e d.
Co u rt reco rd s. Accord i ng to A u sti n. A u stin ca l l ed "speech a cts": N evert h e l ess. H owever fruitfu l this com p a rison m ay be. Literatu re p l ayed a key role i n t h i s respect.
Modern Engl i s h. Borrowed French and Lati n wo rds ofte n coexiste d with their Engl i s h syn onyms. The warmth a nd fo rce of the fo r m e r co ntrasts with t h e cool n ess and cla rity of the l atte r. About Lati n words were i ntrod u ced i nto E ngl i s h d u ri ng t h i s period. M i litary. I n the fifteenth centu ry E ngl i s h d evelo ped a t ri l evel system of syno nyms with d i fferent levels of p restige: Ot h e r co u ntries.
Outside of Lo ndo n. Kentis h. Due to geograp h i c i solati o n. I ta ly. The sixteenth and seventee n t h ce n t u ries. U n l i ke written Lati n. This fi rst wave i n vo lved both u n p l a n ned p rocesses i n cl ud i ng positive feed back. U n l i ke classical Lat i n. Pari si a n.
Tu sca n h ad bee n "creol ized" e n riched b y seve ra l writers D a nte. Petrarch w h o not o n ly e n l a rged its reservo i r of expressive resou rces b u t a lso i nc reased its prestige rel ative to t h e d i a l ects of ot h e r i m po rta nt cities Ve n ice.
Kore a n. I n time. The short e of bed and the short i of sit. C h a u cer's Iyf. The " aw" sou n d of law became the " o h" so u n d of close. The " 0" sou nd of spot became the " a" sou n d of spat. The gra pheme a n d the visu a l morpheme began to d o m i n ate the l itera ry i m agin atio n.
T h e desema ntizatiol1 of wo rds as T h e i nten sity of trad e. I ts desema ntizat i o n occu rred s lowly. La bov. Acco rd i n g to Labov. At fi rst glance. La rge cities b ri ng together the critica l mass of s i m i l a r people needed to fou nd co m m u n ities.
They a re not melti ng pots. The a n swe r is that cities co ntai n both l a rge-scale and s m a l l-sca le envi ro n ments. Although i n p u blic p laces. La rge cities. Does language embody an abstract machine To t h e robot. O u r criticism of th ese l i ngu i stic models i s not that they a re too a b stract but.
There is no i d e a l spea ker-listener. But if a set of Langu age is. A give n o p e rator. This co nstra i nt. Langu age. S pecifical ly. I f both param ete rs a re set at a low i nte nsity. Do uglas.
In ot her wo rd s. Ega l itari an idea l i sts committed to a secta rian cu lture stro ngly wa l led aga i n st the exterior. Dougl as's model has l i m itati o n s: The fou rth co rner. The gro u p s [bureaucracies or sects] expel a nd downgrade d isse nters. Th is. Co ns eq u e ntly. T hese were citize n a rm ie s. The revo l u t i o n aries fou n d covert.
Bot h sides too k this idea very seriou sly. In particu l a r. I n particu l a r. E n g l a n d w here t hese cha nges were effected o n ly afte r seven d ecad es of social refo r m. As Fouca u lt observes. T h ese d evices. Lo n d o n had a l ready experie nced a w h o l e centu ry of a u t h o rita rian attitudes Bot h c a p ita l s were u lt i m ately parasitic. J o h n so n that h i s work became synonymous with the wo rd dictionary itse lf. Speakers of middle-class dialect.
As a res u lt of this ready-made ma rket. Th is mystical power soo n exte nded to ot her dictionaries i n the latter half of the eighteenth ce ntu ry. Portugu ese. More tha n a ny variety of language. Their very existe nce is large ly d u e t o the processes. As we a rgued a bove. Acco rd- T h e Caribbean is n u merica l ly d o m i n ated by F r e n c h-based creoles.
As he says. E ngla n d was i nte rmed i ate betwee n t h e two.
M uc h a s d i ffering attitudes towa rd ad m i n i strative pol i cy resu lted i n d iffe rent l i ngu istic o utco mes i n t h e case o f p l a ntat i o n creoles. Writte n Arabic had. M iss i o na ries. I n Kenya. I n Ta nga nyika. Later o n. Although o n ly a few e l ites e. Spai n. Beca u se of t h e extreme fert i l ity of t hese te m pe rate zo n es. As we h ave o bserved. A m e rican. T h e barrie rs t h at create t h ese isolated pockets of r e p l icato rs can be of d i fferent types.
At fi rst. M ass advertisi ng added yet a n ot h e r way of exp l oiti ng t h i s reservo i r. I n l i ngu i stic terms. To d ay. Both acts were i n stitutio n a l res p o n se s to the n eed to assi m il ate t h e m asses i nto soci ety. I n t h e last de cades o f t h e ni neteenth centu ry. Po l itical ly. Social i n flu e n ces o n gram matical fo rm may lead to situati ons s i m i l a r to th ose arisi ng from taboo in lexis.
B ut th ese forms are rejected as vu l gar. Si nce the stan dard la ngu age is thus automatica l ly cut off from its n o rmal sou rces of re plen ishm ent.
M a l aysia. Gasco ns. I srae l. I ndo nesia. H u nga ry. Ta nza n ia. B reto n s. T h ese cou ntries fol lowed what F i s h m a n calls the " N at i o n -to-State" strategy. Wel s h. Tu rkey after Wo rld Wa r I. Alge ria by was a n added blow to t h e gl obal p restige o f its l a nguage. Tu n isia and Mo rocco by 1 H en ce.
In the 1 s. The growi n g m egabytes o f co nte n t are co ntri b uted by volu nteers. U se net is a pl ace fo r co nversation o r p u b l icatio n. But it d i ffers from conventio n a l mass med ia i n seve ra l respects. I n te levisio n. Engl i s h beca m e the l a ngu age of co m puters. Although a ntima rket i n stituti o n s had a n e a rly p rese n ce i n the co m p ute r meshwo rk. T h e central state. The organ ism is not at a l l the body. Pl asmas. On t h e other hand. Seco nd.
H u m a n h i story has i nvolved a variety of Bod ies wit hout Orga n s. Beca u se all five of these BwOs. For i n stance. It is not s pace.
Only i ntensities pass and circulate. As Del e uze a n d G u attari write: A BwO is made in such a way that it ca n be occupied. For exam ple. O n ly in the seco n d period. Production of the real as an inten s ive magnitu d e sta rting at zero. I n both periods. No d ou bt. Amste rd a m t h at were the most d estratified. The i n d u strial age defi ned as the age of i n sects. Or the apparent order may be reve rsed.
Nothin g of the so rt. It is difficu lt to elu cidate the system of the strata without seem ing to i ntrod u ce a k i nd of cosmic or even s p i ritual evol ution from one to the ot her. That i s. Medieval towns we re both l i n gu i stic a n d e p i d e m iological l a bo rato ries. These i n st it u tio n a l so rt i ng d evices bega n to process pa rticu l a r flows a n d to ass ign each geol ogical. In the n i n eteenth centu ry. There is no " li ke" here.
Strata a re h i sto rica l fo rmations. The same holds t r u e fo r i n stituti o n a l en tities. The express ion also has a fo rm and a su bsta nce: I nstea d. B ut in add it i o n to stratified. At t h e same time. The content has both a fo rm a nd a su bsta nce: I n t h i s book we treated these co n stra i n ts a s cata lysts.
We be l i eve o n ly in tota l ities that are peri p h era l. And i f we d iscove r such a tota l i ty a l o ngsi d e va rious separate parts. I f you free it with too violent a n acti o n. Stayi n g stratified. C roats. You d o n 't reach the BwO. P rigogi n e a n d Ste nge rs write: I n deed, histo ry bega n by conce ntrat i ng m a i n ly o n human societies, after which atte ntio n was given to the temporal d i m ensions of l i fe a n d geol ogy.
The i n corporatio n of time i nto p hysics t h u s appea rs as the l ast stage of a progressive re i n sertion of histo ry i nto the natu ral and social sciences" p. On the role of minor fluct u atio ns in determi n i n g the futu re hi story of a system after a bifu rcatio n , see ibid.
The term "f itness" has in fact c h a n ged in mea n i ng with n eo-Da rwi n i sm. I n the n i n eteenth ce ntu ry it d e noted a set of a ptitud es a nd ad aptive traits n ecessary fo r s u rvival; today it sim ply means fertil ity o r, rather, t he n u m be r of offs p r i ng rea red to re prod u ctive age.
In part ic u l a r, the i n t rod uction of theo ries of self-orga ni zatio n a n d noneq u i l i b ri u m , n o n l i near dynam ics i nto the fo rmalism of n eo-Da rwi n i sm, has made it clear that sel ection press u res cannot ach ieve opti m a l results, particula rly i n c a s e s o f coevo l utio n , as i n pred ato r-p rey a rms races. O n the ot her hand, some sci enti sts B ri a n Goodwin and F ra n cisco Varel a , fo r exa m ple a re.
H e re I will adopt the position. Lyn n. I n h i s l ater wo rk, t h is tra nsition is viewed d iffe rently. That represented a seco nd tra nsiti o n , no. Becker a n d E. A good. C a m b ridge U n iversity P ress, , p. Stew a rt, Does God Play Dice? Cognitive Science Oxfo rd , U K: Sys tems, p. La ngto n , "Artific i a l Life , " i n Artificial Life, ed.
La ngto n R edwood City, CA: Ad d i so n-Wesley, 1 The " key" con cept i n Artificial Life is emergent beh a vior. N atural l ife eme rges out of the o rga n ized i nteractions of a great n u m b e r of n o n livi ng molec u l es, with n o global contro l l e r respo nsi ble fo r the behavior of eve ry part.
I t i s this botto m-up, distri buted, local dete r m i n ation of. Va n berg,. Va n b e rg, "The M a rket as a Creative. P rocess , " in Philosophy o f Economics, ed. Oliver E. U n ivers ity of Cal ifornia Press.
I t was this flow of e n e rgy. I t i s defined b y entries a n d exits. The Making o f Urban Europe. So tru e was it that every town welcomed movement. The Eighth Day: Lyn n Wh ite. S p i ro Kostof. Capitalism a n d Material Life.
H a rvard U n iversity P ress. The City Shaped. It was this movement in and out of its walls that indicated the true town" p. Energy and the Evolution of Life N ew Yo r k: I t effects a pola rizati o n of m atte r.
The City Shaped: If t h e pattern has a ce n ter. C room Helm. See Brau d e l 's d i sc u s s i o n of "tra n s pare ncy" in The Wheels of Commerce. Peter Sawyer. The Wheels o f Commerce N ew Yo rk: K a r l Po l a nyi cl assified three types or modes of soc i a l i ntegratio n: Studies in Social Discontin uity. Pearson N ew Yo rk: Add iso n-Wesl ey. Rules and Choice in Economics L o nd o n: Physics as Nature 's Economics N ew Yo rk: Vi kto r J. Van berg.
More Heat Than Light: Armed Force. H owa rd T. Cam b ri dge U n iv e rs ity Press. W h ite. U n ivers ity of To ro nto Press. Capitalism and Material Life. The Making of Urban Europe. Primitive a n d Peasan t Markets Oxfo rd. B ri a n Tiern ey.
Od u m and E l izabeth C. The Pursuit of Power: The Crisis o f Church and State. Gateway cities have p l ayed a key role in h i story s i nce a ncient times a n d A Tool o f Power: The Wheels o f Commerce. Institutional Change. A Thousand Plateaus. The Market in History. The Wheels of Commerce. U n iv e rsity of C h icago P ress. McG raw. C a m b ridge U n iversity P ress. Fortu n ately. As I said before. NO TES coexisted with both " p ri m it ive" a nd state soci eties.
The Perspective of the World N ew Yo rk: See H odges. C a m bridge U n ivers ity P ress.
Primitive a n d Peasant Markets. I a m therefore i n clined to see t h e E u ropea n world-eco nomy as having taken shape very ea rly on. For Wa l l e rstein. This debate is a nyth i ng but acad emic. I do n ot dispute this poi nt since to say centra l zo ne [i. Oxfo rd U n iversity Press. Descri pt i o n s and criticisms of C h r ista l l e r's t h eory m ay be fou nd in ibid. Peter M. By the same to ken. The Perspective of t h e World. Urban Evolution Oxfo rd.
Primitive and Peasant Markets. I a m t herefore in agreement with the M a rx who wrote although he l ater went back on th is that Eu ropean capitalism. Fo rreste r. C h ri stia nsen and R. The Sciences of the Artificial Ca m b ridge.
S p ri nger Ve rl ag. Pete r L. Ve rlag Peter La ng. Coherence and Chaos in Dynamical Systems. Pete r M. The Sciences of t h e Artificial. Batte n. B utte rworth. Goodw i n.
Applications in the Physical and Social Sciences. See a lso rema rks on se l f-regu lation a n d n o noptim izatio n. M IT P ress. M a n chester U n i ve rsity P ress. See Jay W. Cities a n d the Wealth of Nations. Oxford U n iversity P ress.
The Economy as an Evolving Complex System. Eve n in those regio n s. Order Out of Chaos: B a ntam. Lester J. Ken n i kat. Ci t ies and t h e Wealth o f Nations N ew Yo rk: Too l a n d Warren J. Tra n sacti o n. M a rket powe r. The N e w Industrial State B o sto n: NOTES Stu rgeo n. The Perspective o f the World. Such a struct u re wou l d be. The Economy a s a System o f Power. Eco n o my. E u ro p e a n wo rld-eco nomies. R o utl edge. R oger E.
A Thousand Years of Nonlinear History
See a lso n ote 37 a bove. As t h ey poi nt out. I f Ford. T h i s is why I prefer to use a d iffe rent term a ltogeth e r. Des p ite the a bsol ute n e cess ity of d isti n gu is h i ng between the m a rket-theoretic a n d t h e game-t h e o retic m e a n i ngs of t h e word "com petitio n.
The Pursuit o f Power. The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers. NOTES th i n ki ng a bout possi b l e routes fo r soci a l developme nt. Capitalism and Material Ufe. The Rise and Fall o f the Great Powers. Where It Went B osto n: Whence It Came. P re ntice. A lfred W. Macroevolutionary Dynamics: C ros by. M cG raw. Ecological Imperialism: The Biological Expansion o f Europe. Pfeffe r. Cannibals a n d Kings N ew Yo rk: Vi ntage.
Fra ncisco J. Probst B e rl i n: Spri nger Ve rlag. Vare l a. Order Out o f Chaos. The Tree of Knowledge: Prigog i n e and Ste ngers. E l sewhere. The Emergence o f Order. Encyclopedia o f the Earth 's Resources N ew Yo rk: B row n.
Litt l e. If o n e carefu l ly removes all p a rticles and d e fects. Self-Organizing Systems. O n b i ologica l catalysts as syntactic constra i nts. Cities a n d i n stitutions.
Manuel de Landa - A Thousand Years of Nonlinear History
Free m a n. A Thousand Platea us. Grego ire N icol i s and I lya P rigogi n e. Lyn n Howa rd Pattee. Exploring Complexity N ew York: Self-Organization and Dissipative Structures. M ago roh Maruya n a.
The Sciences o f the Artificial. Dele uze and G u attari. E p i stemological a nd Aesthetic B a se s. Mouto n. Stati ng the distinctio n i n its m o re general way. Life a t the Edge o f Chaos N ew Yo rk: Sci e ntifi c.
Life a t the Edge o f Chaos. The Economy a s a System of Power. In forma tion and Complexity Oxfo rd. Perga m o n. Eight Little Piggies N ew Yo r k: Are T h ey Usefu l? K o n vitz. Ka m p i s writes: A New Framework for Dynamics. Bosto n and Sta rley L. Boston Ca m b ridge. Radzi c k i. The Cybernetic Theory of Decision P ri n ceto n.
The Eighth Day. Ad a ms. Changing the Face o f the Earth. Long Wa ves in the World Economy. Changing the Face of the Earth: Oxford U n iverSity P ress.
M I T Press. Science a n d Techn ology i n History N ew B r u nswick. Carl W. Euge n e S. Ferguso n. His- tory Oxfo r d. Engineering and th e Mind's Eye Ca m b ridge. The Perspective of the Wo rld.
Rail ju nct i o n s such a s Crewe a n d Vierzo n joined river and canal ports and tow n s at the mouth of valleys as commerc i a l ly strategic p l aces.
R u tgers U n ive rsity Press. He acknowledges that the basic idea b e h i n d the system a sta n d ard mod el to be copied exactly was born i n French eighteenth-ce ntu ry arse n a l s a n d adopted later in the U.
The Perspective of the World. Shipbuilders o f the Venetian Arsenal: Workers and Workplace in the Preindustrial City Ba ltimore. S o m e rece nt n o n l i near models o f eco nomi c evo l ution stress the i nte racti o n between two d ifferent processes. Wa r in the Age of Intelligent Machines!By concentrating on the final, extensive form achieved once the intensive process is finished, thermodynamics failed to see that, before the differences in intensity are canceled, the final form or more exactly, its topological counterpart is already there, guiding or acting as an attractor for the morphogenetic process.
I n the seve n teenth centu ry. Such a labor of reco n struction was not of cou rse accomp l ished overn ight: Because that branch of physics became obsessed with the final equilibrium forms, at the expense of the difference-driven morphogenetic process which gives rise to those forms. Embryology shows that the division of the egg is secondary in relation to more significant morphogenetic movements: the augmentation of free surfaces, stretching of cellular layers, invagination by folding, regional displacement of groups.
The style of a rmy o rga n izati o n that ca me i nto bei ng in H o l l and at the close of the sixteenth ce ntury.