KING LEOPOLDS GHOST PDF
i(An absorbing ;md horrifying account.' Luc Santi.% San Fraudsea Chronicle. '' Carefully researched and vigorously told, King Leopold's Ghost does what good. Editorial Reviews. rainbowgiraffe.info Review. King Leopold of Belgium, writes historian Adam King Leopold's Ghost: A Story of Greed, Terror, and Heroism in Colonial Africa - Kindle edition by Adam Hochschild. Download it once and read it on. agencies and concessionary companies imposed a regime of forced labor that totally disregarded the rhythms of agricultural production required for the.
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Silva, Rita Page |1 King Leopold's Ghost by Adam Hochschild Book Review at: rainbowgiraffe.info PDF Click to download. Stephen McCloskey. Adam Hochschild () King Leopold's Ghost: A Story of Greed, Terror and Heroism in Colonial Africa, London . Get this from a library! King Leopold's ghost: a story of greed, terror, and heroism in Colonial Africa. [Adam Hochschild] -- Chronicles the life of King Leopold II of.
King Leopold's Ghost: A Story of Greed, Terror and Heroism in Colonial Africa
In , Livingstone went missing in the midst of an expedition, prompting an international investigation. Over the next four years, Stanley, a savvy self-promoter, traveled south from Zanzibar, sending dramatic telegraph cables about his exciting expedition to find Livingstone. Therefore, when Livingstone disappeared in the course of one expedition, his disappearance sparked an international outcry. Download it! Furious, Stanley resolved to return to Africa.
Here, Hochschild introduces a disturbing theme of the book: the open, almost banal way that Europeans of the late 19th century talked about inflicting pain on African people.
At the time, many Europeans believed that Africans were sub-human, little better than animals. But even as Stanley looked down on Africans, the entire English establishment looked down on Stanley for being a working-class Welshman rather than a real English aristocrat.
Stanley was hungry for acceptance, which is partly why he wanted to continue exploring Africa. Arn, Jackson. Retrieved June 21, Copy to Clipboard. It is also the deeply moving portrait of those who fought Leopold: a brave, committed handful of idealists, missionaries, travelers, diplomats, and African villagers who found themselves witnesses to and, in too many instances, victims of a holocaust. In the late s, Edmund Dene Morel, a young British shipping company agent, noticed something strange about the cargoes of his companys ships as they arrived from and departed for the Congo, Leopold IIs vast new African colony.
Incoming ships were crammed with valuable ivory and rubber. Outbound ships carried little more than soldiers and firearms. Correctly concluding that only slave labor on a vast scale could account for these cargoes, Morel resigned from his company and almost singlehandedly made Leopolds slavelabor regime the premier humanrights story in the world.
King Leopold's ghost : a story of greed, terror, and heroism in Colonial Africa
Thousands of people packed hundreds of meetings throughout the United States and Europe to learn about Congo atrocities. Two courageous black AmericansGeorge Washington Williams and William Sheppard risked much to bring evidence to the outside world. Roger Casement, later hanged by Britain as a traitor, conducted an eyeopening investigation of the Congo River stations.
Sailing into the middle of the story was a young steamboat officer named Joseph Conrad. And looming over all was Leopold II, King of the Belgians, sole owner of the only private colony in the world.
Questions for Discussion We hope the following questions will stimulate discussion for reading groups and provide a deeper understanding of King Leopold's Ghost for every reader.
Between and , the population of the Congo was slashed in half: some ten million people were victims of murder, starvation, exhaustion, exposure, disease and a plummeting birth rate. Why do you think this massive carnage has remained virtually unknown in the United States and Europe?
Hochschild writes of Joseph Conrad that he was so horrified by the greed and brutality among white men he saw in the Congo that his view of human nature was permanently changed. Judging from Hochschilds account and from Heart of Darkness, in whatway was Conrads view changed? How is this true of other individuals about whom Hochschild writes? In what way has this book affected your view of human nature?
Can Leopold II be viewed as a precursor to the masterminds behind the Nazi death camps and the Gulag? Did these three and other twentiethcentury mass killings arise from similar psychological, social, political, economic, and cultural sources? Those who plundered the Congo and other parts of Africa and Asia did so in the name of progress, civilization, and Christianity.
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Was this hypocritical and if so, how? What justifications for colonial imperialism and exploitation have been put forward over the past five centuries? Morel, Sheppard, Williams, Casement, and others boldly spoke out against the Congo atrocities, often at great danger to themselves.
Many others rationalized those same atrocities or said nothing.
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How do you account for Leopolds, Stanleys, and others murderous rapaciousness, on the one hand, and Morels, Casements, and others outrage and committed activism, on the other?
The European conquest and plunder of the Congo and the rest of Africa was brutal, but so was the European settlement of North America and, long before that, the conquest of most of Europe by the Romans. Hasnt history always proceeded in this way? Hochschild begins his book with what he calls Edmund Morels flash of moral recognition on the Antwerp docks.
What other flashes of moral recognition does Hochschild identify, and what were their consequences? Disease was another lethal part of the occupation as local people had no immunities to the new illnesses brought by their occupiers. Moreover, the trauma of conflict, homelessness and hunger left the local population increasingly vulnerable to, and less able to combat, sickness and disease.
The cumulative effect of these abuses and traumas was death on an enormous scale. While the colonial administration and its royal axis represented the worst traits of human behaviour, the growing international campaign against this horror represented some of the best. The leading figures in, or contributors to, this campaign were individuals who had been exposed to some aspect of the noxious cultivation and trade in rubber and ivory.
Central to this movement was E D Morel, an employee of a Liverpool-based shipping line carrying cargo to and from the Congo. On an assignment to Brussels for his employer, Morel discovered incoming ships laden with valuable cargoes and leaving with nothing in exchange apart from military supplies and arms.
This discovery of a slave trade changed his life utterly and set him on a path of tireless activism and campaigning that would ultimately turn the international tide against Leopold.
But to sustain his campaign Morel needed evidence of slavery and abuses in the Congo and this came from witnesses with first-hand experiences.
Casement was incensed at what he saw and his report was incendiary. Their agreement would see Morel front the campaign and Casement provide behind the scenes strategic advice and support. Other key figures in the campaign included Hezekiah Andrew Shanu, a Nigerian businessman and servant of the regime who turned against it and began feeding information to Morel.
Sheppard was tried at the behest of a Congolese company for an article published in that celebrated the Kuba culture and exposed colonial atrocities. He was found not guilty and the company had to pay court costs.
At the time, few campaigners dared suggest that Congo be restored to self-determination and from a distance the Congo campaign victory seems hollow.Many of these activists were pious Christians who believed that European explorers had a duty to spread the gospel to Africa, even as they extracted rubber, ivory, and gold from the continent.
And why did a rising young British shipping executive leave his job to become the greatest muckraker of his day? You already recently rated this item. In spite of the harsh living conditions, Rowlands distinguished himself as a student in his Sunday school classes. Help Center Find new research papers in: How do you account for Leopolds, Stanleys, and others murderous rapaciousness, on the one hand, and Morels, Casements, and others outrage and committed activism, on the other?
Correctly concluding that only slave labor on a vast scale could account for these cargoes, Morel resigned from his company and almost singlehandedly made Leopolds slavelabor regime the premier humanrights story in the world.
Human rights movements. What evidence supports or refutes Casements judgment?
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